Pulmonary Medicine | Hindawi

Research Article

30 Jan 2020

High Serum Level of IL-17 in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and the Alpha-1 Antitrypsin PiZ Allele

Margarita Y. Pervakova  |  Alexandra V. Mazing  |  …  |  Olga N. Titova

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is multifactorial disease, which is characterized by airflow limitation and can be provoked by genetic factors, including carriage of the PiZ allele of the protease inhibitor (Pi) gene, encoding alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT). Both homozygous and heterozygous PiZ allele carriers can develop COPD. It was found recently that normal A1AT regulates cytokine levels, including IL-17, which is involved in COPD progression. The aim of this study was to determine whether homozygous or heterozygous PiZ allele carriage leads to elevated level of IL-17 and other proinflammatory cytokines in COPD patients. Materials and Methods. Serum samples and clinical data were obtained from 44 COPD patients, who included 6 PiZZ, 8 PiMZ, and 30 PiMM A1AT phenotype carriers. Serum concentrations of IL-17, IL-6, IL-8, IFN-γ, and TNF-α were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All A1AT phenotypes were verified by narrow pH range isoelectrofocusing with selective A1AT staining. A turbidimetric method was used for quantitative A1AT measurements. Results. COPD patients with both PiZZ and PiMZ phenotypes demonstrated elevated IL-17 and decreased IFN-γ levels in comparison to patients with the PiMM phenotype of A1AT. Thereafter, the ratio IL-17/IFN-γ in PiZZ and PiMZ groups greatly exceeded the values of the PiMM group. Homozygous PiZ allele carriers also had significantly higher levels of IL-6 and lower levels of IL-8, and IL-6 values correlated negatively with A1AT concentrations. Conclusions. The presence of the PiZ allele in both homozygous and heterozygous states is associated with altered serum cytokine levels, including elevated IL-17, IL-17/IFN-γ ratio, and IL-6 (only PiZZ), but lower IFN-γ and IL-8.

Research Article

30 Jan 2020

Asthma Symptoms in Bakeries at Parakou, Benin

Serge Ade  |  Mênonli Adjobimey  |  …  |  Spero H. R. Hounkpatin

Background and Objectives. There is a dearth of information on asthma among bakers in low-income settings. The objectives of this study were to determine (i) the prevalence of asthma symptoms, (ii) factors associated with probable occupational asthma (OA), and (iii) work habits that might lead to a dusty workplace environment, Parakou, Benin. Materials and Methods. This was a mixed methods (cross-sectional quantitative and qualitative) study carried out between March and September 2018. Results. Of 210 employees/apprentices in 26 bakeries, 190 (91.48%) were included in the study: median age was 25.50 () years, 157 (82.63%) were aged <40 years, and the male-to-female ratio was 26.14. Of these, 111 (58.42%) worked in a salted bread and 79 (41.58%) in a sweet bread bakery. An asthma history was reported by 3.68%. Symptoms consistent with asthma, work-related asthma, OA, and work-aggravated asthma were found in 13.68%, 12.63%, 10%, and 2.63%, respectively. Asthma confirmation was obtained in 15.79% of bakers with probable OA and in 23.08% of all bakers with suspected asthma. A history of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis was associated with probable OA (; ; ). Of the 24 bakers with probable work-related asthma, 3 (12.50%) were prescribed a short-acting beta2-agonist and 2 (8.33%) an inhaled corticosteroid. No worker had had a systematically planned annual medical visit; some habits at work were identified as leading to flour and dust suspension at the workplace. Conclusion. Clinical manifestations of OA were common among bakers in Parakou and were associated with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. There is a need to improve technical preventive measures and treatment, as well as to institute systematic medical visits for these workers.

Research Article

24 Jan 2020

Nasal Provocation Test with Cat and Dog Extracts: Results according to Molecular Components

Andres Sánchez  |  Ricardo Cardona  |  …  |  Jorge Sánchez

Background. IgE sensitization (atopy) to pets is commonly evaluated using pet dander extracts. However, the diagnosis by components seems to be more adequate to evaluate the clinical relevance (allergy) of sIgE sensitization. Objective. To study the association between IgE sensitization to pet allergen components and clinical symptoms. Methodology. Dander extracts and sIgE levels to pet components (Can f 1, Can f 2, Can f 3, Can f 5, Fel d 1, Fel 2, and Fel 4) were measured in a rhinitis group () and a control group (). Nasal provocation tests with pet extract were done in patients with atopy to pets. Results. Dog (34.6% vs. 23.5%) and cat dander (26.7% vs. 8.8%, ) IgE sensitization was frequent among rhinitis and no-rhinitis subjects, and it was similar to dog (29.7% vs. 20.5%) and cat (18.8% vs. 8.8%) components. Polysensitization for dog (3.1, 95% CI: 1.5 to 6.1, ) or cat (2.5, 95% CI: 0.8 to 8.0, ) components was the principal risk factor for a positive nasal provocation test. Additionally, positive nasal provocation test with one animal increased the risk of atopy and positive nasal provocation test to others animals. Pet ownership or asthma was not associated with increased risk of atopy or positive nasal provocation test. Conclusions. Sensitization to pet dander extract identifies atopic patients, but its utility to predict clinical relevance is poor. Allergenic components could help to define the clinical relevance of sensitization to furry animals and could reduce the need for provocation test.

Review Article

26 Dec 2019

Respiratory Involvement in Patients with Neuromuscular Diseases: A Narrative Review

Athanasios Voulgaris  |  Maria Antoniadou  |  …  |  Paschalis Steiropoulos

Respiratory muscle weakness is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with neuromuscular diseases (NMDs). Respiratory involvement in NMDs can manifest broadly, ranging from milder insufficiency that may affect only sleep initially to severe insufficiency that can be life threatening. Patients with neuromuscular diseases exhibit very often sleep-disordered breathing, which is frequently overlooked until symptoms become more severe leading to irreversible respiratory failure necessitating noninvasive ventilation (NIV) or even tracheostomy. Close monitoring of respiratory function and sleep evaluation is currently the standard of care. Early recognition of sleep disturbances and initiation of NIV can improve the quality of life and prolong survival. This review discusses the respiratory impairment during sleep in patients with NMDs, the diagnostic tools available for early recognition of sleep-disordered breathing and the therapeutic options available for overall respiratory management of patients with NMDs.

Research Article

19 Dec 2019

Establishment of Reference Norms for Lung Function Parameters of Healthy Sri Lankan Tamils

Mathanki Sooriyakanthan  |  Savithri Wimalasekera  |  Sivapalan Kanagasabai

Spirometry and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) are important measurements in diagnosing and monitoring of COPD and asthma. Ethnic specific reference equations are necessary in interpretation of these parameters. However, equations for Sri Lankan Tamil adults are not available. This study aims to establish reference equations for lung function parameters of Sri Lankan Tamils. A descriptive cross sectional study was carried out in all 5 districts of Northern Sri Lanka. Participants were selected by cluster sampling. Base line data were obtained by a questionnaire. Height, sitting height, weight, arm span, mid arm circumference, and chest expansion were measured. Respiratory functions were assessed by a calibrated spirometer (Cosmed Micro Quark, Italy) and Wright compatible peak expiratory flow meter. Means, and standard deviations for Vital Capacity (VC), Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in the first second (FEV1), FEV1%, Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) and for other forced expiratory parameters of 775 males and 687 females were determined. Lung function parameters have significant positive correlations with most of the anthropometric measures. Age had a significant negative correlation with lung function parameters in adults >20 years and positive correlation in 14–20 years group. Step wise multiple regression analysis was used to determine the prediction equations. Also equations based on age, height and age, arm span were derived. Age, height based equations were retested in the same population. Predicted values by the developed equations had better agreement than that of GLI 2012 equations. This can be useful in assessing the respiratory function in Sri Lankan Tamil population as there are no already existing equations.

Research Article

17 Dec 2019

Does Pseudomonas aeruginosa Colonization Affect Exercise Capacity in CF?

Asterios Kampouras  |  Elpis Hatziagorou  |  …  |  John Tsanakas

Introduction. Cardio-Pulmonary Exercise Testing (CPET) has been recognized as a valuable method in assessing disease burden and exercise capacity among CF patients. Aim. To evaluate whether Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization status affects Exercise Capacity, LCI and High-Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) indices among patients with CF; to check if Pseudomonas colonization can predict exercise intolerance. Subjects. Seventy-eight (78) children and adults with CF (31 males) mean (range) age 17.08 (6.75; 24.25) performed spirometry, Multiple Breath Washout (MBW) and CPET along with HRCT on the same day during their admission or follow up visit. Results. 78 CF patients (mean FEV1: 83.3% mean LCI: 10.9 and mean VO2 peak: 79.1%) were evaluated: 33 were chronically colonized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 24 were intermittently colonized whereas 21 were Pseudomonas free. Statistically significant differences were observed among the three groups in: peak oxygen uptake % predicted (VO2 peak% (), LCI (), as well as FEV1% () and FVC% (). Pseudomonas colonization could predict VO2 peak% (, : −0.395). Conclusion. Exercise capacity as reflected by peak oxygen uptake is reduced in Pseudomonas colonized patients and reflects lung structural damages as shown on HRCT. Pseudomonas colonization could predict exercise limitation among CF patients.

Source Article